On this episode of Anti-Aging Hacks, Dr. Tom Dayspring and Faraz Khan discuss the basics of lipids, lipoproteins, LDL, HDL, cholesterol and all the basics that you must know to live longer and healthier.
Dr Tom Dayspring is a pre-eminent world expert on lipids (that includes LDL, HDL, LDL particle counts, LDL particle sizes, ApoB) and so much more. Since heart disease is the #1 killer of Americans worldwide, it’s important for you to learn this information.
Once you’ve understood the basics, check out part 2 – Tom explains how to lower bad LDL cholesterol and triglyceride numbers using a diet, supplementation or pharmaceutical approach.
Dr. Thomas Dayspring Background
- Got into lipids and lipoproteins in medical school
- Major lipid discoveries were being made in Tom’s formative years
- Did lots of reading on lipids and atherosclerosis diseases
- In a few years, became one of the most requested educators in the world of lipids
What Are Lipids?
- Organic molecules that are insoluble in water – they float on top of water (oil and water don’t mix)
- They are crucial for life
- Your cells either have to make lipids or get it from outside the cell
- Cells also need to be able to evict lipids when they get too high
- Lipids cannot travel in your bloodstream by themselves because they are afraid of water
What Is Cholesterol And Benefits and Risks
- Cholesterol is a lipid – and is a type of sterol
- Is an important of your cell membranes
- It’s very important to cell function and response
- Cholesterol is important to make male and female hormones
- Every cell in your body has the machinery to make all the cholesterol it needs
- But if too much cholesterol – it can be toxic
- Your cells have the ability to dump cholesterol out of the cell
- Cholesterol is super essential for your brain
- You can also absorb cholesterol from your gut (from the foods you eat)
- If you have too much cholesterol and cannot get rid of it, then atherosclerosis (heart disease) can start to form
- It’s essential to keep cholesterol out of the artery wall
What are Glycero Lipids?
- Triglycerides are made up of 3 fatty acids stuck to a glycerol molecule
- Triglycerides are energy transporters because muscles use triglycerides for energy
- If you don’t need energy at the moment, fat cells can store the triglycerides for future needs
- Triglycerides are hydro phobic and cannot float in water
What Are Phospholipids?
- Make up cell membranes in your body
- Lipoproteins’ surface is made up for phospholipids and cholesterol
What Are Lipoproteins?
- Lipids cannot travel by themselves in your bloodstream, they need a carrier
- Apoproteins are able to carry/transport phospholipids, cholesterol and triglycerides and give them a ride in your bloodstream
- The apoprotein are transportation vehicles – they prevent the fatty molecules from being exposed to the water
- Once lipids attach to apoproteins – the apoproteins are called apolipoproteins
- Apolipoproteins can enter artery wall and dump their cholesterol, which can start heart disease
Important Lipoprotein Category Apolipoprotein B or ApoB
- There is only one ApoB peptide on each of the apolipoproteins that carry it
- Some lipids are more dense – meaning they have more proteins on them – such as high density lipoproteins (HDL)
- Some lipids are low density – very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) or low density lipoprotein (LDL)
- There are intermediate or medium density lipoproteins IDL
- ApoB molecules are potentially atherogenic: VLDL, IDL and LDL
- These are the potentially dangerous molecules for heart health
- HDL have very little lipids (it’s mostly proteins) so it’s not as dangerous in the artery wall
- It’s best to grab the ApoB particles and take them into the liver for clearance
Lipoprotein Bioavailability in Plasma
- LDL’s stay in plasma for 3-5 days
- VLDL last for few hours
- IDL’s last for 20 minutes
- 90-95% of circulating ApoB particles are LDL’s
Best Tests for Lipid Concentrations:
- Total Cholesterol: all the cholesterol in your plasma in a volume of blood. Includes VLDL, IDL, LDL and HDL. Good to be less than 150 and certainly 200.
- Total cholesterol is somewhat useful but not very accurate. It’s a guesstimate of ApoB.
- HDL cholesterol: all cholesterol in the HDL particles in your plasma. For now, don’t read too much into the HDL numbers.
- LDL cholesterol: all the cholesterol in every LDL particles in a decileter of blood. Is almost accurate. Best to be in the bottom 20%. LDL-C of 20% percentile is 70 or lesser. LDL-C of 100-110 is right in the middle.
- Triglycerides: Every triglyceride in every lipoprotein in plasma. Most triglycerides are in the VLDL particles. Triglycerides of 75 are at the 50th percentile. Trigs of 130 is in the 80-90% percent. Keep it under 70 as possible.
- Non-HDL cholesterol: Any cholesterol that’s not in HDL. This is the best surrogate in lipid profile for a high ApoB.
Other Tests Tom Prefers
- ApoB: The ApoB on the VLDL, IDL, LDL and LP(a). Shows how many of these particles you have. This is the most accurate count for heart disease risk. Tom prefers a number of 80 or below.
- LDL-P: Since 95% of ApoB comes from just LDL particles, the LDL-P or LDL particle number is a very good measure of ApoB count as well. NMR test gives you LDL-particle count or LDL-P. Ion mobility transfer can also tell you LDL-P.
- ApoB or LDL-P by NMR is a great test. Tom prefers ApoB at this point – it’s cheaper.
How To Follow Tom
- Tom is quite active on twitter, so make sure to follow him at at drlipid